In other acute illnesses characterized by a prominent SIRS, such as sepsis, thrombocytopenia portends an ominous prognosis,12-14 particularly in patients with declining platelet counts after admission.15 Although platelet fragmentation is well recognized in sepsis as part of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), platelet fragmentation has not been studied in patients with ALF, who often have a DIC-like phenotype, except for factor VIII levels, which tend to be low in DIC, but very high in ALF.10, 16 Microparticles (MPs) are membrane fragments (ranging in size from 0.1-1.0 μm) derived from many cell types.17 Activation of cells or platelets by systemic inflammation initiates an enzymatically catalyzed reaction whereby chards of plasma membrane bleb inside out into the circulation, exposing procoagulant http://www.selleckchem.com/products/chir-99021-ct99021-hcl.html phosphatidylserine and cellular epitopes conferring functionality. MPs are particularly prothrombotic when they display tissue factor (TF), a transmembrane protein.18, 19 Increasing experimental evidence suggests that MPs play a functional role in regulating vascular tone in patients with
cirrhosis20 and sepsis,21 conditions that bear many check details similarities to ALF syndrome.22 Recent advances in light-scattering technology have permitted the enumeration and sizing of very small MPs of 0.15-0.5 μm, below the limit of detectability by standard flow cytometry, allowing
an exploration of the role of MPs in disease pathogenesis.23 We hypothesized that patients with ALI/ALF may develop 6-phosphogluconolactonase increased procoagulant MPs in plasma as a function of the severity of the SIRS. Furthermore, we sought to explore a potential pathogenic role of MPs in the systemic complications and outcome of patients with ALI/ALF. Ab, antibody; ALF, acute liver failure; ALFSG, the Ancillary Studies Committee of the Acute Liver Failure Study Group; ALI, acute liver injury; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; APAP, acetaminophen (paracetamol); aPTT, activated partial thromboplastin time; ASGPR, asialoglycoprotein receptor; BSA, bovine serum albumin; CLD, chronic liver disease; DIC, disseminated intravascular coagulation; ECs, endothelial cells; FX, factor X; FXa, FX assay; HE, hepatic encephalopathy; INR, international normalized ratio of prothrombin time; ISADE, Invitrox Sizing, Antigen Detection and Enumeration; LT, liver transplantation; MOSF, multiorgan system failure; MPs, microparticles; MP-TF, microparticle tissue factor assay/activity; PPP, platelet-poor plasma; RRT, renal replacement therapy; SD, standard deviation; SEM, scanning electron microscopy; SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome; TEG, thromboelastogram/thromboelastography; TF, tissue factor; TFS, transplant-free survival; VCU, Virginia Commonwealth University.