Although this anomaly is not accounted for in any of the current

Although this anomaly is not accounted for in any of the current laryngomalacia classification schemes, modified laser supraglottoplasty was a satisfactory

approach leading to successful decannulation. Laryngeal embryology and possible timing of the pathogenesis of this rare occurrence are reviewed as well. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“The reaction of 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid with a 10-fold excess of NaNO2 in the glacial acetic acid at 20A degrees C affords tetrabromonitrosophenols whose further transformations under the reaction conditions leads to the formation of a mixture of 2,4,5,6-tetrabromo-p-quinone diazide ACY-241 order and tetrabromo-p- and -o-nitrophenols in the molar ratio 37: 2: 1. Under similar conditions the 3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-2-hydroxybenzoic acid is converted into a mixture of 3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-o-quinone diazide with the same nitrophenols in the ratio 13: 1: 3. The reaction of sodium 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-4-hydroxy-benzoate with NaNO2 in dilute acetic acid resulted in a quantitative yield of tetrabromo-p-quinone monooxime.”
“OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according PFTα mouse to disease severity has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities in chronic obstructive

pulmonary disease patients according to disease severity.

METHODS: The study included 25 mild/moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and 25 severe/very Napabucasin clinical trial severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. All participants underwent clinical evaluation, spirometry and electrocardiography/echocardiography.

RESULTS: Electrocardiography and echocardiography showed Q-wave alterations and segmental contractility in five (10%) patients. The most frequent echocardiographic finding was mild left diastolic dysfunction (88%), independent of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease stage. The proportion of right ventricular overload (p<0.05) and blockage

of the anterosuperior division of the left bundle branch were higher in patients with greater obstruction. In an echocardiographic analysis, mild/moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients showed more abnormalities in segmental contractility (p<0.05), whereas severe/very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients showed a higher prevalence of right ventricular overload (p<0.05), increased right cardiac chamber (p<0.05) and higher values of E-wave deceleration time (p<0.05). Age, sex, systemic arterial hypertension, C-reactive protein and disease were included as independent variables in a multiple linear regression; only disease severity was predictive of the E-wave deceleration time [r(2) = 0.26, p = 0.01].

Conclusions: LMWH may be considered for patients with severe RI

Conclusions: LMWH may be considered for patients with severe RI. However, experience, judicious choice and careful monitoring of patients with severe RI treated with LMWH are necessary.”
“200 nm diameter Au contacts were fabricated by e-beam lithography on sputtered thin film EX 527 vanadium oxide grown on conducting substrates and current perpendicular to plane electron transport measurements were performed with a conducting tip atomic force microscope. Sharp jumps in electric current were observed in the I-V characteristics of the nano-VO(2) junctions and were attributed to the manifestation of the metal-insulator transition. The critical field and dielectric

constant were estimated from quantitative analysis of the current-voltage relationship and compared with reported values on micrometer and larger size scale devices. These results are of

potential relevance to novel oxide electronics utilizing metal-insulator transitions. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3245338]“
“Three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D QSAR) analysis was carried out on a set of 56 N,N’-diarylsquaramides, N,N’-diarylureas and diaminocyclobutenediones in order to understand their antagonistic activities against CXCR2. The studies included comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) Selleck Luminespib and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). Models with good predictive abilities were generated with CoMFA q(2) = 0.709, r(2) (non-cross-validated square of correlation coefficient) = 0.951, F value = 139.903, r(2) bs = 0.978 with five components, standard error of estimate = 0.144 and the CoMSIA q(2) =

0.592, r(2) = 0.955, F value = 122.399, r(2) bs = 0.973 with six components, standard error of estimate = 0.141. In addition, a homology model of CXCR2 was used for docking based alignment of the compounds. The most active compound then served as a template for alignment of the remaining structures. Further, mapping of contours onto the active site validated each other in terms of residues involved with reference to the respective contours. This integrated molecular docking based alignment followed by 3D QSAR studies provided a further insight to support the structure-based design of CXCR2 antagonistic JIB-04 solubility dmso agents with improved activity profiles. Furthermore, in silico screening was adapted to the QSAR model in order to predict the structures of new, potentially active compounds.”
“Objectives: To evaluate the in-hospital outcome of STEMI (ST elevation myocardial infarction) patients admitted to Swiss hospitals between 2000 and December 2007, and to identify the predictors of in-hospital mortality and major cardiac events.

Methods: Data from the Swiss national registry AMIS Plus (Acute Myocardial Infarction and Unstable Angina in Switzerland) were used.

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics [doi:10 1063/1 3483957]“<

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3483957]“
“The clinical course and risk factors for developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD) after heminephrectomy in

living kidney donors have scarcely been investigated. We reviewed medical records and identified eight case donors who developed chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 or ESRD, and subsequently investigated the association between postoperative clinical courses and changes in renal function. NVP-BSK805 supplier To conduct a case-control study, we also selected a control group comprising 24 donors who had maintained stable renal function and were matched for age, sex and follow-up time since donation. Except for one donor who developed ESRD caused by a traffic accident, none of the donors developed progressive renal dysfunction immediately after donation. Their renal functions remained stable for a long period of time, but started to decline after developing new comorbidities, especially risk factors known as progression factors (proteinuria or hypertension) or accelerating factors (cardiovascular [CV] event or infection) of CKD. As compared with the control donors, incidence of postoperative persistent proteinuria, acute CV event, severe infection and hospitalization due to accelerating factors of CKD were significantly higher in the case donors. These results suggest the importance of long-term (more than 10 years)

follow-up of donors with special attention on the risk factors of CKD.”
“Microsized aluminum/epoxy resin composites were prepared, and the thermal Nocodazole and dielectric

properties of the composites were investigated in terms of composition, aluminum particle sizes, frequency, buy VX-661 and temperature. The results showed that the introduction of aluminum particles to the composites hardly influenced the thermal stability behavior, and decreased T of the epoxy resin; moreover, the size, concentration, and surface modification of aluminum particles had an effect on their thermal conductivity and dielectric properties. The dielectric permittivity increased smoothly with a rise of aluminum particle content, as well as with a decrease in frequency at high loading with aluminum particles. While the dissipation factor value increased slightly with an increase in frequency, it still remained at a low level. The dielectric permittivity and loss increased with temperature, owing to the segmental mobility of the polymer molecules. We found that the aluminum/epoxy composite containing 48 vol % aluminum-particle content possessed a high thermal conductivity and a high dielectric permittivity, but a low loss factor, a low electric conductivity, and a higher breakdown voltage. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 3156-3166, 2010″
“Structural, magnetic, and ferroelectric properties have been investigated for Bi(2)Fe(4(1-x))Ti(4)xO(9) (0 <= x <= 0.2) bulk ceramics, which were synthesized by a modified Pechini method.

Results: Our findings indicate that the administration of MTZ can

Results: Our findings indicate that the administration of MTZ can prolong swimming capacity time and improve exercise tolerance as

well as increase the content of liver glycogen, reduce the level of lactic acid in muscles, when compared with anoxic control group. MTZ also delayed the accumulation of BUN, compared with anoxic control.

Conclusion: The results show that MTZ has anti-fatigue effects in mice, and further suggest that it is a potential novel remedy for fatigue due to high-altitude hypoxia.”
“Background and objective: The relationship between endotoxin exposure and asthma TL32711 severity (wheeze and airways obstruction) is not well described. The effects of endotoxin and tobacco smoke exposure on self-reported wheeze and diurnal PEF variability (DV-PEF) were examined in children aged 6-18 years with asthma or wheeze.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in a rural area. From this study, children who reported wheeze in the previous 12 months or a physician diagnosis of asthma (n = 98) were selected for a case-control study. These subjects, who were the basis for the present analysis, completed: (i) a home environmental assessment, including dust collection buy Sapanisertib to measure endotoxin levels: (ii)

a clinic visit, including saliva collection to measure cotinine levels; and (iii) 2 week monitoring of twice daily symptom records, including wheeze, and PEF to calculate DV-PEF.

Results: Among these children, 22.4% reported wheeze during the monitoring period. Greater DV-PEF was associated with higher endotoxin loads in play areas (P < 0.05). The association between salivary cotinine levels and high DV-PEF was modified by gender. In females, higher cotinine levels were associated with an increased risk of high DV-PEF compared with lower cotinine levels (P < 0.05), but this was not observed among males.

Conclusions: Higher endotoxin exposure was associated with greater DV-PEF among children with

asthma or wheeze. While previous studies have suggested that endotoxin exposure protects against the development of asthma, individuals with the disease should avoid high exposure levels to limit exacerbations. The effect of tobacco buy JNK inhibitor smoke exposure on lung health may differ between male and female children.”
“Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 32 canine pairs of testes were immunohistochemically examined for Inhibin-alpha (INH alpha). Samples were subdivided into two groups (group 1, neonates; group 2, puppies and adults) and results statistically compared. Inhibin-alpha was significantly expressed only in Sertoli cells of neonatal testes, while in Leydig cells it was expressed without significant difference between groups.

The technique can be used to create a posterior

capsulect

The technique can be used to create a posterior

capsulectomy of a desirable size in a controlled manner to avoid destabilization of the IOL. It can be applied selectively in cases of pediatric cataract surgery.”
“We investigated the correlation between morphology and electron spin https://www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk2126458.html relaxation time in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on misoriented GaAs(110) substrates. For the MQW on a 2 degrees-misoriented GaAs(110), formation of wide (110) step terraces due to step bunching was observed. Measurements of the temperature dependence of the electron spin relaxation time tau(s) showed that the D’yakonov-Perel’ (DP) spin relaxation was suppressed even in the MQW on the 2 degrees-misoriented GaAs(110) owing to the step terrace formation. In contrast, in the MQW on a 5 degrees-misoriented GaAs(110), in which the surface showed ripple patterns, the tau(s)

became shorter than that on the on-axis GaAs(110), which we attribute to the enhanced electron spin relaxation originating from the bulk inversion asymmetry term in the DP mechanism that is induced by the substrate misorientation. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3622586]“
“Centella asiatica (L.) Urban has been traditionally used for the treatment of various disease and as a food PLX3397 in vitro for thousands of years in various parts of the world including eastern Asia, China and India. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica aqueous

leaf extract on the induction of spermatogenic cell apoptosis in male rats. After lethal dose click here (LD50) assessment of plant extract, rats were divided in five groups. The experimental groups received orally 10, 50, 80 and 100 mg/kg aqueous leaf extract daily for 60 days and the control group received just water. After 60 days, body and testis weight were measured and blood samples were taken from the heart. To evaluate apoptosis and histological changes, tissue samples obtained from rat testes were stained by TUNEL assay and hematoxylin and eosin stain. Results showed that the sperm count, motility, and viability and the number of spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules were significantly decreased compared with the control group. The number of apoptotic germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross-section was significantly increased in the experimental group (18.11 +/- A 3.5) compared with the control group (8.7 +/- A 0.81) (P < 0.05). Serum testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels also showed significant decreases in the experimental groups (P < 0.05). There was also a significant decrease in testis weight in experimental groups compared with the control group (P < 0.05).

Thus, the strain can be a useful tool for tailoring magnetic semi

Thus, the strain can be a useful tool for tailoring magnetic semiconductors to the formation or not of embedded nanoclusters. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3448025]“
“The synthetic procedure and the characterization of the new R406 order amino derivatives of poly(oxa-p-phenylene-3,3-phtalido-p-phenylene-oxa-p-phenilene-oxy- phenylene) (PEEK-WC) with various average degrees of substitution, is reported. The amino PEEK-WC was extensively characterised by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric

analysis, differential scanning calorimeter, scanning electron microscopy, Elemental analyses, NMR, and viscosity measurements. The amino PEEK-WC shows different solubility in some solvents in comparison with the parent polymer, good thermal stability and is able to form membrane by means of the phase inversion technique. Amino PEEK-WC results to be quite reactive and can lead to further modification.

(C) JNK-IN-8 chemical structure 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 2258-2264, 2010″
“This review is aimed at examining calcium channel blocker (CCB)-related oedema and how this can be attenuated through the use of agents that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system. CCBs are effective antihypertensive agents, but their propensity for causing oedema may reduce compliance. A review of the literature has indicated that the absolute incidence of this side effect is difficult to determine because reported rates vary widely, a factor that may stem from differences Galardin chemical structure in the surveillance technique ( active

vs passive). In a recent trial incorporating active surveillance, 25% of patients who received amlodipine 10mg per day experienced oedema. CCB-induced oedema is caused by increased capillary hydrostatic pressure that results from preferential dilation of pre-capillary vessels. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) cause post-capillary dilation and normalize hydrostatic pressure, and are thus ideally suited for prevention/reversal of CCB-induced oedema. The efficacy of this strategy was proven using both subjective and objective techniques. ARB/CCB and ACEI/CCB combination therapy is also more effective than CCB monotherapy in controlling blood pressure. These combinations represent an important advance in the management of hypertension. Journal of Human Hypertension ( 2009) 23, 503-511; doi: 10.1038/jhh.2008.157; published online 15 January 2009″
“Aim: A rating scale for thirst and hunger was evaluated as a noninvasive, simple and commonly available tool to estimate preanesthetic gastric volume, a surrogate parameter for the risk of perioperative pulmonary aspiration, in healthy volunteer school age children.

Knowledge of common tick vectors

Knowledge of common tick vectors Salubrinal in the United States and the infections they transmit will allow pediatricians to appropriately assess and manage patients with tick-borne diseases.”
“Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various diseases during pregnancy and the perinatal period. Newborns are more prone to oxidative stress than individuals later in life. During pregnancy, increased oxygen demand augments the rate of production of ROS and women, even during normal pregnancies, experience elevated oxidative stress compared with non-pregnant women.

ROS generation is also increased in the placenta during preeclampsia. Melatonin is a highly effective direct free-radical scavenger, indirect antioxidant, and cytoprotective agent in human pregnancy and it appears to be essential for successful pregnancy. www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk2879552-2hcl.html This suggests a role for melatonin in human reproduction and in neonatal pathologies (asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, etc.). This review summarizes current knowledge concerning the role for melatonin in human pregnancy and in the newborn. Numerous studies agree that short-term melatonin therapy is highly effective in reducing complications during pregnancy and in the neonatal period. No significant toxicity or treatment-related side effects with long-term melatonin therapy in children and adults have been reported. Treatment

with melatonin might result in a wide range of health benefits, LY411575 cost including improved quality of life and reduced healthcare costs.”
“Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the surgical technique and report the safety and feasibility of robotic-assisted laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy, a uterine sparing procedure to correct pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Hysterectomy at the time of POP surgery has yet to be proven to improve the durability of repair. Nevertheless, the leading indication for hysterectomy in postmenopausal women is POP. Patients and Methods: We reviewed the medical records of a consecutive case series of uterine sparing prolapse repair procedures

from 2005 to 2011. Fifteen women were identified. Procedures utilized a type I polypropylene mesh securing the posterior uterocervical junction to the sacral promontory. This was later modified to utilize a Y-shaped strip that was inserted through the broad ligaments to include the anterior uterocervical junction. Results: Objective success was defined as Baden Walker grade 0 uterine prolapse and subjective success was defined as no complaint of vaginal bulge or pressure. The mean age of women was 51.8 years (28-64 years). No intraoperative complications were noted. The mean operating time was 159.4 minutes (130-201 minutes) and mean estimated blood loss was 35mL (0-100mL). The mean length of stay was 1.6 days (1-4 days) and mean length of follow-up was 10.8 months. Uterine prolapse improved in all 15 patients.


“P>Transcriptome


“P>Transcriptome learn more analysis using the Affymetrix ATH1 platform has been completed on purified trichomes from the gl3-sst mutant. These trichomes display immature features, such as glassy cell walls and blunted branches. The gl3-sst trichome transcriptome was greatly enriched for genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, including those mediating the synthesis of fatty acids and wax. In addition, gl3-sst trichomes displayed reduced expression of the R3 MYBs TRY and CPC, which

normally function to limit trichome development. The expression of the MIXTA-like MYB gene NOK was elevated. Members of the MIXTA-like family promote conical cell outgrowth, and in some cases, trichome initiation in diverse plant species. In contrast, NOK limits trichome outgrowth in wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Similar to other MIXTA-like genes, NOK was required for the expansion of gl3-sst trichomes, as the gl3-sst nok double mutant trichomes were greatly reduced in size. Expression of NOK in nok mutants selleck chemical reduced branch formation, whereas in gl3-sst nok, NOK expression promoted trichome cell outgrowth, illustrating duel roles for NOK in both promoting and limiting trichome development. MIXTA-like genes from phylogenetically diverse plant species could substitute

for NOK in both nok and gl3-sst nok backgrounds. These findings suggest that certain aspects of NOK and MIXTA-like gene function have been conserved.”
“The objective of the study is to investigate the benefits of joining a self-help group for patients with medication overuse headache (MOH). A self-help group is a voluntary gathering of

a small number of persons who share a common problem. Little is known about support groups for people with chronic non-malignant pain such as MOH. Eight patients with refractory MOH attended a self-help group twice a month. During the meetings, patients were asked to focus on their headache experiences. Our data showed an increase in resourcefulness in coping with pain and a reduction in cephalalgiophobia. All patients reported general benefits in sharing their headache-related problems. No differences were found for headache frequency or analgesic overuse. To GW786034 our knowledge, this is the first report on a self-help group for patients with MOH. Joining a self-help group can help patients develop positive attitudes to managing pain.”
“P>Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome harbors three genes annotated as gabT GABA transaminases. A DC3000 mutant lacking all three gabT genes was constructed and found to be unable to utilize GABA as a sole carbon and nitrogen source.

300 eV A rho value higher than 10(8) center dot cm was obtained

300 eV. A rho value higher than 10(8) center dot cm was obtained when the doping concentration of Fe, [Fe], exceeded the major shallow donor (Si) concentration (5×10(17) cm(-3)). For those SI samples, the relative intensity of the yellow luminescence band at 2.2 eV, of

which the origin has been attributed to Ga vacancies (V-Ga) and/or defect complexes composed of V-Ga and O, over the UV/blue emission was remarkably decreased. Simultaneously, the Doppler broadening S parameter for the positron annihilation ASP2215 in vivo measurement, which represents the size or concentration of negatively charged vacancy type point defects such as V-Ga, was decreased. The results are consistent with the increase in formation energy of V-Ga due to the downward shift of the Fermi level by Fe doping. The values of rho, S, and W parameters that represents the fraction of positrons annihilated with core electrons, in the bulk region did not change remarkably while the positron diffusion length was increased by the annealing in N-2 between 600 and 1050 degrees C. Although the defect concentration in uncapped surface region was increased remarkably by annealing at 1050 degrees C due to the surface decomposition, the present results indicate that GaN:Fe can be used as a thermally stable SI GANT61 nmr substrate for electronic devices because the surface does not decompose during the epitaxial

growths of overlayers.”
“Phthalates have been used for decades in large quantities, leading to the ubiquitous exposure of the population. In an investigation of 63 German daycare centers, indoor air and dust samples were analyzed for

the presence of 10 phthalate diesters. Moreover, 10 primary and secondary phthalate metabolites were quantified in urine samples from 663 children attending these facilities. In addition, the urine specimens of 150 children were collected after the weekend and before they went to daycare centers.

Di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), dibutyl phthalate (DnBP), Natural Product Library and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were found in the indoor air, with median values of 468, 227, and 194 ng/m(3), respectively. In the dust, median values of 888 mg/kg for DEHP and 302 mg/kg for di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) were observed. DnBP and DiBP were together responsible for 55% of the total phthalate concentration in the indoor air, whereas DEHP and DiNP were responsible for 70% and 24% of the total phthalate concentration in the dust.

Median concentrations in the urine specimens were 44.7 mu g/l for the DiBP monoester, 32.4 mu g/l for the DnBP monoester, and 16.5 mu g/l and 17.9 mu g/l for the two secondary DEHP metabolites. For some phthalates, we observed significant correlations between their concentrations in the indoor air and dust and their corresponding metabolites in the urine specimens using bivariate analyses.


“Silver films of varying thicknesses (25, 45, and 60 nm) w


“Silver films of varying thicknesses (25, 45, and 60 nm) were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) LB-100 purchase on silicon and zinc oxide (ZnO) on silicon. The films were annealed in vacuum for 1 h at different temperatures (300-650 degrees C). Four-point-probe measurements were used to determine the resistivity

of the films. All films showed an abrupt change in resistivity beyond an onset temperature that varied with thickness. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements revealed agglomeration of the Ag films upon annealing as being responsible for the resistivity change. X-ray pole figure analysis determined that the annealed films took on a preferential < 111 > texturing; however, the degree of texturing was significantly higher in Ag/ZnO/Si than in Ag/ITO/Si samples. This observation was accounted for by interface energy minimization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements revealed an increasing MK-8931 nmr surface roughness of the annealed films with temperature. The resistivity behavior was explained by the counterbalancing effects of increasing crystallinity and surface roughness. Average surface roughness obtained from the AFM measurements were also used to model the agglomeration of Ag based on Ostwald ripening theory.”
“SETTING: Victoria, Australia.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and control of tuberculosis (TB) in Victoria, 2005-2010.

DESIGN: Retrospective review of laboratory-confirmed

TB in Victoria, 2005-2010. State TB reference laboratory records were matched with Department of Health

notification records to obtain laboratory, demographic, clinical and treatment data.

RESULTS: The incidence of TB fell HIF inhibitor in the Australian-born population but increased overall, reflecting an increase in the proportion of overseas-born cases from 88.9% to 95.8% between 2005 and 2010 (P = 0.03). Patients from India and Viet wNam accounted for over one third of all cases. For overseas-born cases, the median time between arrival and diagnosis was 4 years. Half of all diagnoses were pulmonary disease, of which 45.4% were Ziehl-Neelsen smear-positive. Treatment was most commonly self-administered (76.9%), and very few patients defaulted or failed treatment (1.1%). Only 4.1% of cases were linked to another laboratory-confirmed case. Multidrug-resistant TB remained uncommon (1.7% of cases).

CONCLUSIONS: TB in Victoria remains low by global standards and continues to overwhelmingly affect the overseas-born population. Current TB control strategies in Victoria are effective, but strengthened control in high-burden countries will also improve TB control locally.”
“P-type InAs excited by ultrashort optical pulses has been shown to be a strong emitter of terahertz radiation. In a direct comparison between a p-InAs emitter and conventional thermal radiation sources, we demonstrate that under typical excitation conditions p-InAs produces more radiation below 1.